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The application of key agreement protocols has become increasingly important in today`s world of online communication. These protocols are designed to establish a secure and private connection between two parties, allowing them to communicate confidentially over an insecure network.

Key agreement protocols use a combination of symmetric and asymmetric encryption techniques to establish a shared secret key that only the two parties involved can access. This shared key can then be used to encrypt and decrypt messages sent between the two parties, ensuring that only the intended recipient can read the message.

One of the most commonly used key agreement protocols is the Diffie-Hellman protocol. In this protocol, two parties agree on a large prime number and a primitive root modulo of that prime number. Using these values, each party generates a private key and a corresponding public key. The parties then exchange their public keys and use them to derive a shared secret key that can be used for encryption and decryption.

Key agreement protocols are used in a variety of applications, including secure email, online banking, and e-commerce. They are also increasingly being used in the Internet of Things (IoT) to secure communication between smart devices and servers.

In the realm of IoT, key agreement protocols are particularly important as the devices involved often have limited processing power and memory. As a result, the protocols used must be lightweight and efficient while still maintaining a high level of security.

There are several key agreement protocols that have been developed specifically for use in IoT, including ECC-based key agreement protocols and lightweight key agreement protocols. These protocols have been designed to provide robust security while minimizing the computational requirements of the devices involved.

Overall, the application of key agreement protocols is critical for ensuring secure and private communication in today`s digital age. As the use of IoT devices continues to grow, it is likely that we will see an increased focus on the development of lightweight and efficient key agreement protocols that can be used in this context.